Thursday, December 08, 2005

FDR's Address to Congress: Dec 8, 1941

We have heard a great deal about the Japanese Occupation of Hong Kong over the last few months, particularly on the 60th anniversary of the war's end. It has unfortunately continued, due to China's noticeable commemoration of the event and Japan's PM insisting on visiting the Yasukuni War Shrine to honor Japan's War dead (including its war criminals). I tried to find official records of the events locally.

I find the official record of the Hong Kong government very patchy after December 6th, partly because the Japanese bombing on the 7th and the invasion on the 8th made regular government business difficult. Many official papers were also burnt during the attack, leaving little record of Allied war counsels. What paper remained was used as fuel by those that had to survive the Japanese Occupation.

Instead of writing about the fighting, though, I thought today I would simply make available US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's address to Congress on December 8th, 1941, in the wake of the Pearl Harbor attack and the attack on Hong Kong. It is absorbing, moving reading, transporting one back in time to relive the gravity of the situation. Without further ado:

Yesterday, December 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.

The United States was at peace with that Nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its Government and its Emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in Oahu, the Japanese Ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to the Secretary of State a form reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hit of war or armed attack.

It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time the Japanese Government had deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace.

The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian Islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. Very many American lives have been lost. In addition American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.

Yesterday the Japanese Government also launched an attack against Malaya.

Last night Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.

Last night Japanese forces attacked Guam.

Last night Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.

Last night the Japanese attacked Midway Island.

Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our Nation.

As Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense.

Always will we remember the character of the onslaught against us. No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.

I believe I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again.

Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory, and our interests are in grave danger.

With confidence in our armed forces--with the unbounded determination of our people--we will gain the inevitable triumph--so help us God.

I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December seventh, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese Empire.

Franklin D. Roosevelt
The White House, December 8, 1941

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